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High Seroconversion Rates in Trypanosoma Cruzi Chronic Infection Treated with Benznidazole in People Under 16 Years in Guatemala

Title: High Seroconversion Rates in Trypanosoma Cruzi Chronic Infection Treated with Benznidazole in People Under 16 Years in Guatemala Authors: Brum-Soares, L; Cubides, JC; Burgos, I; Monroy, C; Castillo, L; González, S; Viñas, PA; Urrutia, PP Abstract: Geographical, epidemiological, and environmental differences associated with therapeutic response to Chagas etiological treatment have been previously discussed. This study describes high seroconversion rates 72 months after benznidazole treatment in patients under 16 years from a project implemented by Doctors without Borders in Guatemala.

Evaluating a Mental Health Program for Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon

Title: Evaluating a Mental Health Program for Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon Authors: Yassin, N; Taha, A; Ghantous, Z; Atoui, M; Forgione, F Abstract: Medecins sans Frontière, an international non-governmental organization, initiated a mental health program for Palestinian refugees living in Lebanon. To evaluate the impact of the program after its completion, focus groups were conducted with three target groups: (1) patients, (2) staff, and (3) local community stakeholders. Participants voiced overall satisfaction with the program. The program provided easy access, good quality care, decreased stigma, as perceived by participants, and revealed a sense of community contentedness. In addition, several short-term outcomes were achieved, such as increasing the numbers of patients visiting the center/ receiving mental health treatment. However, lack of planning for sustainability and proper procedures for hand-over of the program constituted a major downfall. Program discontinuation posed ethical dilemmas, common in provisional interventions in underprivileged refugee communities. Description: We regret that this article is behind a paywall.

Knowledge, Access and Utilization of Bed-Nets Among Stable and Seasonal Migrants in an Artemisinin Resistance Containment Area of Myanmar

Title: Knowledge, Access and Utilization of Bed-Nets Among Stable and Seasonal Migrants in an Artemisinin Resistance Containment Area of Myanmar Authors: Phyo Than, W; Oo, T; Wai, K; Thi, A; Owiti, P; Kumar, B; Deepak Shewade, H; Zachariah, R Abstract: Myanmar lies in the Greater Mekong sub-region of South-East Asia faced with the challenge of emerging resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Migrant populations are more likely than others to spread ACT resistance. A vital intervention to reduce malaria transmission, resistance spread and eliminate malaria is the use of bed nets. Among seasonal and stable migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment region of Myanmar, we compared a) their household characteristics, b) contact with health workers and information material, and c) household knowledge, access and utilization of bed nets.

Thiamine Content of F-75 Therapeutic Milk for Complicated Severe Acute Malnutrition: Time for a Change?

Title: Thiamine Content of F-75 Therapeutic Milk for Complicated Severe Acute Malnutrition: Time for a Change? Authors: Hiffler, L; Adamolekun, B; Fischer, P; Fattal-Vavleski, A Abstract: Since community-based management of severe acute malnutrition has become the standard of care, the clinical profile of severe acutely malnourished patients admitted to hospitals or inpatient therapeutic feeding centers has changed significantly. These patients are usually very ill and often present with several comorbidities, such as shock, sepsis, and pneumonia. Complicated severe acute malnutrition patients are at risk of thiamine insufficiency, and critically ill patients have higher thiamine requirements. The thiamine content of F-75, the therapeutic milk formula used in the early stabilization phase of refeeding in patients with severe acute malnutrition, seems insufficient. Here, we discuss the need and rationale for a substantial increase in the thiamine content of F-75. Description: We regret that this article is behind a paywall.

Effectiveness of Food Supplements in Increasing Fat-Free Tissue Accretion in Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition: A Randomised 2 × 2 × 3 Factorial Trial in Burkina Faso

Title: Effectiveness of Food Supplements in Increasing Fat-Free Tissue Accretion in Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition: A Randomised 2 × 2 × 3 Factorial Trial in Burkina Faso Authors: Fabiansen, C; Yaméogo, C; Iuel-Brockdorf, A; Cichon, B; Rytter, M; Kurpad, A; Wells, J; Ritz, C; Ashorn, P; Filteau, S; Briend, A; Shepherd, S; Christensen, V; Michaelsen, K; Friis, H Abstract: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) or corn-soy blend (CSB). We assessed the effectiveness of (a) matrix, i.e., LNS or CSB, (b) soy quality, i.e., soy isolate (SI) or dehulled soy (DS), and (c) percentage of total protein from dry skimmed milk, i.e., 0%, 20%, or 50%, in increasing fat-free tissue accretion.

Engagement of Public and Private Medical Facilities in Tuberculosis Care in Myanmar: Contributions and Trends Over an Eight-Year Period

Title: Engagement of Public and Private Medical Facilities in Tuberculosis Care in Myanmar: Contributions and Trends Over an Eight-Year Period Authors: Nwe, T; Saw, S; Le Win, L; Mon, M; van Griensven, J; Zhou, S; Chinnakali, P; Shah, S; Thein, S; Aung, S Abstract: As part of the WHO End TB strategy, national tuberculosis (TB) programs increasingly aim to engage all private and public TB care providers. Engagement of communities, civil society organizations and public and private care provider is the second pillar of the End TB strategy. In Myanmar, this entails the public-public and public-private mix (PPM) approach. The public-public mix refers to public hospital TB services, with reporting to the national TB program (NTP). The public-private mix refers to private general practitioners providing TB services including TB diagnosis, treatment and reporting to NTP. The aim of this study was to assess whether PPM activities can be scaled-up nationally and can be sustained over time.

Adherence, Tolerability, and Outcome After 36 Months of Isoniazid-Preventive Therapy in 2 Rural Clinics of Swaziland: A Prospective Observational Feasibility Study

Title: Adherence, Tolerability, and Outcome After 36 Months of Isoniazid-Preventive Therapy in 2 Rural Clinics of Swaziland: A Prospective Observational Feasibility Study Authors: Mueller, Y; Mpala, Q; Kerschberger, B; Rusch, B; Mchunu, G; Mazibuko, S; Bonnet, M Abstract: Although efficacy of 36 months isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among HIV-positive individuals has been proven in trial settings, outcome, tolerance, and adherence have rarely been evaluated in real-life settings.This is a prospective observational cohort study conducted in 2 primary care rural clinics in Swaziland.After negative tuberculosis symptom screening, patients either with the positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or after tuberculosis treatment were initiated on IPT for 144 weeks. In addition to routine clinic visits, adherence was assessed every semester.Of 288 eligible patients, 2 patients never started IPT (1 refusal, 1 contraindication), and 253 (87.8%), 234 (81.3%), and 228 (79.2%) were still on IPT after 48, 96, and 144 weeks, respectively (chiP = .01). Of 41 patients who interrupted IPT before 144 weeks, 21 defaulted (of which 17 also defaulted HIV care); 16 stopped because of adverse drug reactions; 2 were discontinued by clinicians' mistake and 1 because of TB symptoms. Five patients (1.7%) died of causes not related to IPT, 5 (1.7%) developed TB of which 2 were isoniazid-resistant, and 9 (3.1%) were transferred to another clinic. As an indicator of adherence, isoniazid could be detected in the urine during 86.3% (302/350) and 73.6% (248/337) of patient visits in the 2 clinics, respectively (chiP < .001).The routine implementation of IPT 36 months was feasible and good patient outcomes were achieved, with low TB incidence, good tolerance, and sustained adherence.

[Orthopedic Surgery with Limited Resources After Mass Disasters and During Armed Conflicts : First International Guidelines for the Management of Limb Injuries and the Experience of Doctors Without Borders]

Title: [Orthopedic Surgery with Limited Resources After Mass Disasters and During Armed Conflicts : First International Guidelines for the Management of Limb Injuries and the Experience of Doctors Without Borders] Authors: Osmers, I Abstract: Disasters and armed conflicts are often the unfortunate basis for aid projects run by Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). The nature of war and disasters means that surgery is an integral part of this medical emergency aid. In these situations, resources are usually limited. As a result, surgical work in these contexts differs significantly from the daily routine of a surgeon working in a highly resourced hospital. The principles of surgery do not change but surgeons must adapt their tactical approach to the changed context otherwise there is a high risk of failing to improve the health of patients and potentially jeopardizing their prospects for recovery. Every experienced war surgeon has learned new skills the hard way. The Field Guide to Manage Limb Injury in Disaster and Conflict has been written to help new surgeons who may face the challenges of disaster and war surgery and to avoid unnecessary suffering for patients ( https://icrc.aoeducation.org ). Under the guidance of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), with participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), financed by the AO Foundation, and featuring the experiences of experts from different organizations (amongst them MSF), the book details techniques and guidelines for surgery in low resource settings. The following article provides a short summary of some of the surgical challenges when working with limited resources and reflects on a few specific recommendations for so-called war surgery.

Standardised Mortality Surveys 1

Title: Standardised Mortality Surveys 1 Authors: MSF Description: Mortality Survey Protocol - standardised, ERB approved, intersectional This collection of files includes an overview of the whole process of conducting a mortality survey and templates for concept papers, the protocol, questionnaires and consent and other related forms. Surveys that use this standardised intersectional protocol do not require MSF Ethics Review Board (ERB) review if the Medical Director of the relevant section takes responsibility for addressing the ethics issues. The exemption criteria of the MSF ERB for standardised intersectional survey protocols must be followed. See http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/handle/10144/618799 as above in "Additional LInks".

Standardised Vaccination Coverage Surveys 1

Title: Standardised Vaccination Coverage Surveys 1 Authors: MSF Description: Vaccination Coverage Survey Protocol - standardised, ERB approved, intersectional This collection of files includes an overview of the whole process of conducting a vaccination coverage survey and templates for concept papers, the protocol, questionnaires and consent and other related forms. Surveys that use this standardised intersectional protocol do not require MSF Ethics Review Board (ERB) review if the Medical Director of the relevant section takes responsibility for addressing the ethics issues. The exemption criteria of the MSF ERB for standardised intersectional survey protocols must be followed. See http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/handle/10144/618799 as above in "Additional LInks".

Study Concept Paper Template

Title: Study Concept Paper Template Authors: MSF Abstract: This is a simple template to highlight the issues to be addressed when developing a research question.

Effect of Community ART Groups on Retention-In-Care Among Patients on ART in Tete Province, Mozambique: A Cohort Study

Title: Effect of Community ART Groups on Retention-In-Care Among Patients on ART in Tete Province, Mozambique: A Cohort Study Authors: Decroo, T; Telfer, B; Dores, C; White, R; Santos, N; Mkwamba, A; Dezembro, S; Joffrisse, M; Ellman, T; Metcalf, C Abstract: Estimate the effect of participation in Community ART Groups (CAG) versus individual care on retention-in-care (RIC) on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to Assess Access to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in a Refugee Camp Setting in South Sudan: A Feasibility Study

Title: Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to Assess Access to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in a Refugee Camp Setting in South Sudan: A Feasibility Study Authors: Harding, E; Beckworth, C; Fesselet, J; Lenglet, A; Lako, R; Valadez, J Abstract: Humanitarian agencies working in refugee camp settings require rapid assessment methods to measure the needs of the populations they serve. Due to the high level of dependency of refugees, agencies need to carry out these assessments. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a method commonly used in development settings to assess populations living in a project catchment area to identify their greatest needs. LQAS could be well suited to serve the needs of refugee populations, but it has rarely been used in humanitarian settings. We adapted and implemented an LQAS survey design in Batil refugee camp, South Sudan in May 2013 to measure the added value of using it for sub-camp level assessment.

Carriage Prevalence and Serotype Distribution of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Prior to 10-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine Introduction: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in South Western Uganda, 2014

Title: Carriage Prevalence and Serotype Distribution of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Prior to 10-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine Introduction: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in South Western Uganda, 2014 Authors: Nackers, F; Cohuet, S; le Polain de Waroux, O; Langendorf, C; Nyehangane, D; Ndazima, D; Nanjebe, D; Karani, A; Tumwesigye, E; Mwanga-Amumpaire, J; Scott, J; Grais, R Abstract: Information on Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage before the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction is essential to monitor impact. The 10-valent PCV (PCV10) was officially introduced throughout Ugandan national childhood immunization programs in 2013 and rolled-out countrywide during 2014. We aimed to measure the age-specific Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and serotype distribution across all population age groups in the pre-PCV10 era in South Western Uganda.

Health Care Workers' Perceptions of Point-of-Care Testing in a Low-Income Country-A Qualitative Study in Southwestern Uganda

Title: Health Care Workers' Perceptions of Point-of-Care Testing in a Low-Income Country-A Qualitative Study in Southwestern Uganda Authors: Rasti, R; Nanjebe, D; Karlström, J; Muchunguzi, C; Mwanga-Amumpaire, J; Gantelius, J; Mårtensson, A; Rivas, L; Galban, F; Reuterswärd, P; Andersson Svahn, H; Alvesson, H; Boum, Y; Alfvén, T Abstract: Point-of-care (POC) tests have become increasingly available and more widely used in recent years. They have been of particular importance to low-income settings, enabling them with clinical capacities that had previously been limited. POC testing programs hold a great potential for significant improvement in low-income health systems. However, as most POC tests are developed in high-income countries, disengagement between developers and end-users inhibit their full potential. This study explores perceptions of POC test end-users in a low-income setting, aiming to support the development of novel POC tests for low-income countries.

Combined Interventions to Reduce HIV Incidence in KwaZulu-Natal: A Modelling Study

Title: Combined Interventions to Reduce HIV Incidence in KwaZulu-Natal: A Modelling Study Authors: Blaizot, S; Huerga, H; Riche, B; Ellman, T; Shroufi, A; Etard, J; Ecochard, R Abstract: Combined prevention interventions, including early antiretroviral therapy initiation, may substantially reduce HIV incidence in hyperendemic settings. Our aim was to assess the potential short-term impact of combined interventions on HIV spreading in the adult population of Mbongolwane and Eshowe (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) using sex- and age-specific scenarios, and age-targeted interventions.

Designing HIV Testing Algorithms Based on 2015 WHO Guidelines Using Data from Six Sites in sub-Saharan Africa

Title: Designing HIV Testing Algorithms Based on 2015 WHO Guidelines Using Data from Six Sites in sub-Saharan Africa Authors: Kosack, C; Shanks, L; Beelaert, G; Benson, T; Savane, A; Ng'ang'a, A; Andre, B; Zahinda, J; Fransen, K; Page, A Abstract: Our objective was to evaluate the performance of HIV testing algorithms based on WHO recommendations, using data from specimens collected at six HIV testing and counselling sites in sub-Saharan Africa (Guinea, Conakry; Kitgum and Arua, Uganda; Homa Bay, Kenya; Douala, Cameroun; Baraka, Democratic Republic of Congo). A total of 2780 samples, including 1306 HIV-positive, were included in the analysis. HIV testing algorithms were designed using Determine as a first test. Second and third rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) were selected based on site-specific performance, adhering where possible to the WHO-recommended minimum requirements of sensitivity and specificity of ≥99%. The threshold for specificity was reduced to 98% or 96% if necessary. We also simulated algorithms consisting of one RDT followed by a simple confirmatory assay. The positive predictive values (PPV) of the simulated algorithms varied from 75.8%-100% using strategies recommended for high-prevalence settings; 98.7%-100% using strategies recommended for low-prevalence settings; and 98.1%-100% using a rapid test followed by a simple confirmatory assay. Although we were able to design algorithms that met the recommended PPV of ≥99% in five of six sites using the applicable high prevalence strategy, options were often very limited due to sub-optimal performance of individual RDTs and to shared false-reactive results. These results underscore the impact of the sequence of HIV tests and of shared false-reactivity on algorithm performance. Where it is not possible to identify tests that meet WHO-recommended specifications, the low-prevalence strategy may be more suitable.

Implications of Differentiated Care for Successful ART Scale-Up in a Concentrated HIV Epidemic in Yangon, Myanmar

Title: Implications of Differentiated Care for Successful ART Scale-Up in a Concentrated HIV Epidemic in Yangon, Myanmar Authors: Mesic, A; Fontaine, J; Aye, T; Greig, J; Thwe, T; Moretó-Planas, L; Kliesckova, J; Khin, K; Zarkua, N; Gonzales, L; Guillergan, E; O’Brien, D Abstract: Introduction: National AIDS Programme in Myanmar has made significant progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART) services and recognizes the importance of differentiated care for people living with HIV. Indeed, long centred around the hospital and reliant on physicians, the country’s HIV response is undergoing a process of successful decentralization with HIV care increasingly being integrated into other health services as part of a systematic effort to expand access to HIV treatment. This study describes implementation of differentiated care in Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported programmes and reports its outcomes. Methods: A descriptive cohort analysis of adult patients on antiretroviral treatment was performed. We assessed stability of patients as of 31 December 2014 and introduced an intervention of reduced frequency of physicians’ consultations for stable patients, and fast tract ART refills. We measured a number of saved physician’s visits as the result of this intervention. Main outcomes, remained under care, death, lost to follow up, treatment failure, were assessed on 31 December 2015 and reported as rates for different stable groups. Results: On 31 December 2014, our programme counted 16, 272 adult patients enrolled in HIV care, of whom 80.34% were stable. The model allowed for an increase in the average number of patients one medical team could care for – from 745 patients in 2011 to 1, 627 in 2014 – and, thus, a reduction in the number of teams needed. An assessment of stable patients enrolled on ART one year after the implementation of the new model revealed excellent outcomes, aggregated for stable patients as 98.7% remaining in care, 0.4% dead, 0.8% lost to follow-up, 0.8% clinical treatment failure and 5.8% with immunological treatment failure. Conclusions: Implementation of a differentiated model reduced the number of visits between stable clients and physicians, reduced the medical resources required for treatment and enabled integrated treatment of the main co-morbidities. We hope that these findings will encourage other stakeholders to implement innovative models of HIV care in Myanmar, further expediting the scale up of ART services, the decentralization of treatment and the integration of care for the main HIV co-morbidities in this context.

Protection Against Cholera From Killed Whole-Cell Oral Cholera Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Title: Protection Against Cholera From Killed Whole-Cell Oral Cholera Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Authors: Bi, Q; Ferreras, E; Pezzoli, L; Legros, D; Ivers, L; Date, K; Qadri, F; Digilio, L; Sack, D; Ali, M; Lessler, J; Luquero, F; Azman, A Abstract: Killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccines (kOCVs) are becoming a standard cholera control and prevention tool. However, vaccine efficacy and direct effectiveness estimates have varied, with differences in study design, location, follow-up duration, and vaccine composition posing challenges for public health decision making. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to generate average estimates of kOCV efficacy and direct effectiveness from the available literature.

Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Prevention Amongst Syrian Refugees: Mixed Methods Study of Médecins Sans Frontières Programme in Jordan

Title: Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Prevention Amongst Syrian Refugees: Mixed Methods Study of Médecins Sans Frontières Programme in Jordan Authors: Collins, D; Jobanputra, K; Frost, T; Muhammed, S; Ward, A; Shafei, A; Fardous, T; Gabashneh, S; Heneghan, C Abstract: The growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) presented new challenges for medical humanitarian aid and little was known about primary health care approaches for these diseases in humanitarian response. We aimed to evaluate Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF's) use of total CVD risk based prevention strategies amongst Syrian refugees in northern Jordan to identify opportunities to improve total CVD risk based guidance for humanitarian settings.

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