Briefing paper for field epidemiologists: Community indicator-based surveillance
Carrión Martin, Antonio Isidro,; Kuehne, Anna; Keating, Patrick; Lenglet, Annick; Southgate, Rosamund; Caleo, Grazia; van Boetzelaer, Elburg
Concepts and practical aspects to help implementation of community indicator-based surveillance in humanitarian settings
To discuss the practical aspects of the design, implementation, and evaluation of community indicator-based surveillance (CIBS) in humanitarian settings; to provide a theoretical framework on public surveillance (definitions, types, and attributes) from the perspective of the CIBS in a humanitarian setting. Our aim is help field teams to decide what the most appropriate system might be and to improve the design of CIBS systems within MSF operations.
Global public health security and justice for vaccines and therapeutics in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Hotez, PJ; Batista, C; Amor, YB; Ergonul, O; Figueroa, JP; Gilbert, S; Gursel, M; Hassanain, M; Kang, G; Kaslow, DC; Kim, JH; Lall, B; Larson, H; Naniche, D; Sheahan, T; Shoham, S; Wilder-Smith, A; Sow, SO; Strub-Wourgaft, N; Yadav, P; Bottazzi, ME
A Lancet Commission for COVID-19 task force is shaping recommendations to achieve vaccine and therapeutics access, justice, and equity. This includes ensuring safety and effectiveness harmonized through robust systems of global pharmacovigilance and surveillance. Global production requires expanding support for development, manufacture, testing, and distribution of vaccines and therapeutics to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Global intellectual property rules must not stand in the way of research, production, technology transfer, or equitable access to essential health tools, and in context of pandemics to achieve increased manufacturing without discouraging innovation. Global governance around product quality requires channelling widely distributed vaccines through WHO prequalification (PQ)/emergency use listing (EUL) mechanisms and greater use of national regulatory authorities. A World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution would facilitate improvements and consistency in quality control and assurances. Global health systems require implementing steps to strengthen national systems for controlling COVID-19 and for influenza vaccinations for adults including pregnant and lactating women. A collaborative research network should strive to establish open access databases for bioinformatic analyses, together with programs directed at human capacity utilization and strengthening. Combating anti-science recognizes the urgency for countermeasures to address a global-wide disinformation movement dominating the internet and infiltrating parliaments and local governments.
CommunityFirst solutions for COVID-19: decolonising health crises responses.
Kiddell-Monroe, R; Farber, J; Devine, C; Orbinski, J
Performance of six rapid diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection and implications for practical use.
Fourati, S; Langendorf, C; Audureau, E; Challine, D; Michel, J; Soulier, A; Ahnou, N; Desveaux, I; Picard, O; Ortonne, V; Gourgeon, A; Mills, C; Hemery, F; Rieux, C; Pawlotsky, JM; Malou, N; Chevaliez, S
Background: Direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins in nasopharyngeal swabs using lateral flow immunoassays is a simple, fast and cheap approach to diagnose the infection.
Aims and methods: The performance of 6 SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid diagnostic tests has been assessed in 634 hospitalized patients or outpatients including 297 patients found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by means of RT-PCR and 337 patients presumed to be SARS-CoV-2 RNA-negative.
Results: The specificity of SARS-CoV-2 RDTs was generally high (398.5%). One assay had a lower specificity of 93.2%. The overall sensitivity of the 6 RDTs was variable, from 32.3% to 61.7%. Sensitivity correlated with the delay of sampling after the onset of symptoms and the viral load estimated by the Ct value in RT-PCR. Four out of 6 RDTs tested achieved sensitivities 380% when clinical specimens were collected during the first 3 days following symptom onset or with a Ct value ≤25.
Conclusions: The present study shows that SARS-CoV-2 antigen can be easily and reliably detected by RDTs. These tests are easy and rapid to perform. However, the specificity and sensitivity of COVID-19 antigen RDTs may widely vary across different tests and must therefore be carefully evaluated before releasing these assays for realworld applications.
A call to safeguard sexual and reproductive health information and services during Ebola outbreaks.
Tran, NT; Lichtenstein, D; Black, B; Rosmini, A; Schulte-Hillen, C
The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in 2021 exemplify how sexual and reproductive health services are too often considered unessential during health emergencies. Bleeding for reasons other than EVD, such as pregnancy complications or rape, can be construed as EVD symptoms, reinforcing fear and stigmatisation, and delaying timely access to adequate care. In this commentary, we urgently call on all humanitarian actors to integrate the Minimum Initial Services Package for Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations into current and future EVD preparedness and response efforts.
Ten tips for overcoming language barriers in science.
Amano, T; Rios Rojas, C; Boum, Y; Calvo, M; Misra, BB
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